Mysore was the capital of the Kingdom of Mysore until 1950, except in the 18th century when Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan were the defacto rulers for a 40-year period. Mysore state continued to be ruled by Maharaja H.H. Jaya Chamaraja Wadiyar till Mysore became part of Indian Republic on 26-1-1950.
And now the Mysore city is the headquarters of Mysore District. Mysore city is also known as the 'City of Palaces' and the 'Ivory City'. The famous Chamundi Hill, which is mythological associated with the name of the city, is to its southeast.
Mysore was ruled by the demon-king Mahishasura, he was a buffalo-headed monster. Hence, came the name of this place - Mahishuru, the city of demon Mahisha. The demon was killed by the Goddess Chamundeshwari, whose temple is situated atop the Chamundi Hills. Mahishuru later became Mahisuru and finally came to be called Maisuru, its present name in the Kannada language. The anglicised form of the name is Mysore.
The earliest mention of Mysore or Mahishur historically is referred to the time of King Ashoka in 245 B.C. However, it is only from the 10th Century that a proper and consistent line of history of Mysore can be traced.
The Ganga Dynasty appeared in the scene of the Mysore of History in the 2nd Century and ruled Mysore till 1004. The next dynasty who left their mark on the pages of the History of Mysore was the Cholas who ruled the region for about a Century. The Cholas were followed by the Chalukyas and the Hoysalas. A number of inscriptions from the 11th and 12th Centuries are found in Mysore, which provides clue about the happenings in the region.
History of Mysore points out that it was in 1399 A.D that the Yadu dynasty came to power in Mysore. A feudatory of the Vijaynagar Empire, the Yadu dynasty contributed significantly to the development of Mysore. Bettada Chamaraja Wodeyar, the raja of Mysore rebuilt the fort of Mysore and made his headquarters and called the city 'Mahishuru Nagara' meaning the city of Mahishur. The year 1610 was a land mark in the history of Mysore as it was in this year that Raja Waidyar shifted the capital from Mysore to Srirangapatnam. From the year 1761 to 1799 Mysore was ruled by Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan. Mysore remained the second most important city till the death of Tipu Sultan. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Anglo Mysore War the History of Mysore once again took a sharp turn.
As the History of Mysore went under the control of the Britishers, they placed a minor Prince Krishnaraja Wodeyar on the throne of Mysore. It was practically from this time that the city started to grow. During the reign of Mummadi Krishna Raja Wodeyar(Krishna Raja Wodeyar III) the town of Mysore expanded and moved beyond the walls of the fort. H.H. Chamaraja Wodeyar adopted son of Mummadi Krishna Raja Wodeyar , succeeded him and ruled Mysore Kingdom form 1881 to 1894. H.H. Nalvadi Krishna Raja Wodeyar(Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV) eldest son Mummadi Krishna Raja Wodeyar, ruled mysore from 1895-1940 and developed Mysore into a beautiful city with excellent planning. Under his reign Mysore became famous for its wide roads, magnificent building and elegant parks. During Nalvadi Krishna Raja Wodeyar's minority his mother H.H. Vani Vilas Sannidhana ruled as regent from 1895-1902.
Even after British India gained Independent dominion status on 15-8-1947, Mysore continued as a Sovereign State under the Maharaja H.H. Jaya Chamaraja Wodeyar albeit with a responsible Government headed by Mr. K.C. Reddy as the Chief Minister. However, the Constituent Assembly of Mysore decided to adopt the Constitution of India and on 26-1-1950, Mysore merged with the Republic of India as a Part -B State. But the Maharaja Continued as the Rajpramukh of the State as per Art. 366(21) of the Constitution.